Darwin, Charles, 1809-1882 . The expression of the emotions in man and animals
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CHAPTER I. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF EXPRESSION.
The three chief principles stated — The first principle — Serviceable actions become habitual in association with certain states of the mind, and are performed whether or not of service in each particular case — The force of habit — Inheritance — Associated habitual movements in man — Reflex actions — Passage of habits into reflex actions — Associated habitual movements in the lower animals — Concluding remarks.
CHAPTER II. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF EXPRESSION —
The Principle of Antithesis — Instances in the dog and cat — Origin of the principle — Conventional signs — The principle of antithesis has not arisen from opposite actions being consciously performed under opposite impulses.
CHAPTER III. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF EXPRESSION —
The principle of direct action of the excited nervous system on the body, independently of the will and in part of habit — Change of colour in the hair — Trembling of the muscles — Modified secretions — Perspiration — Expression of extreme pain — Of rage, great joy, and terror — Contrast between the emotions which cause and do not cause expressive movements — Exciting and depressing states of the mind — Summary.
CHAPTER IV. MEANS OF EXPRESSION IN ANIMALS.
The emission of Sounds — Vocal sounds — Sounds otherwise produced — Erection of the dermal appendages, hairs, feathers, &c., under the emotions of anger and terror — The drawing back of the ears as a preparation for fighting, and as an expression of anger — Erection of the ears and raising the head, a sign of attention.
CHAPTER V. SPECIAL EXPRESSIONS OF ANIMALS.
The Dog, various expressive movements of — Cats — Horses — Ruminants — Monkeys, their expression of joy and affection — Of pain — Anger — Astonishment and Terror.
CHAPTER VI. SPECIAL EXPRESSIONS OF MAN: SUFFERING AND WEEPING.
The screaming and weeping Of infants — Forms of features — Age at which weeping commences — The effects of habitual restraint on weeping — Sobbing — Cause of the contraction of the muscles round the eyes during screaming — Cause of the secretion of tears.
CHAPTER VII. LOW SPIRITS, ANXIETY, GRIEF, DEJECTION, DESPAIR.
General effect of grief on the system — Obliquity of the eyebrows under suffering — On the cause of the obliquity of the eyebrows — On the depression of the corners of the mouth.
CHAPTER VIII. JOY, HIGH SPIRITS, LOVE, TENDER FEELINGS, DEVOTION.
Laughter primarily the expression of joy — Ludicrous ideas — Movements of the features during laughter — Nature of the sound produced — The secretion of tears during loud laughter — Gradation from loud laughter to gentle smiling — High spirits — The expression of love — Tender feelings — Devotion.
CHAPTER IX. REFLECTION — MEDITATION — ILL — TEMPER — SULKINESS — DETERMINATION.
The act of frowning — Reflection with an effort, or with the perception of something difficult or disagreeable — Abstracted meditation — Ill-temper — Moroseness — Obstinacy — Sulkiness and pouting — Decision or determination — The firm closure of the mouth.
CHAPTER X. HATRED AND ANGER.
Hatred — Rage, effects of on the system — Uncovering of the teeth — Rage in the insane — Anger and indignation — As expressed by the various races of man — Sneering and defiance — The uncovering of the canine tooth on one side of the face.
CHAPTER XI. DISDAIN — CONTEMPT — DISGUST — GUILT — PRIDE, ETC. — HELPLESSNESS — PATIENCE — AFFIRMATION AND NEGATION.
Contempt, scorn and disdain, variously expressed — Derisive smile — Gestures expressive of contempt — Disgust — Guilt, deceit, pride, &c. — Helplessness or impotence — Patience — Obstinacy — Shrugging the shoulders common to most of the races of man — Signs of affirmation and negation.
CHAPTER XII. SURPRISE — ASTONISHMENT — FEAR — HORROR.
Surprise, astonishment — Elevation of the eyebrows — Opening the mouth — Protrusion of the lips — Gestures accompanying surprise — Admiration — Fear — Terror — Erection of the hair — Contraction of the platysma muscle — Dilatation of the pupils — Horror — Conclusion.
CHAPTER XIII. SELF-ATTENTION — SHAME — SHYNESS — MODESTY: BLUSHING.
Nature of a blush — Inheritance — The parts of the body most affected — Blushing in the various races of man — Accompanying gestures — Confusion of mind — Causes of blushing — Self — attention, the fundamental element — Shyness — Shame, from broken moral laws and conventional rules — Modesty — Theory of blushing — Recapitulation.
CHAPTER XIV. CONCLUDING REMARKS AND SUMMARY.
The three leading principles which have determined the chief movements of expression — Their inheritance — On the part which the will and intention have played in the acquirement of various expressions — The instinctive recognition of expression — The bearing of our subject on the specific unity of the races of man — On the successive acquirement of various expressions by the progenitors of man — The importance of expression — Conclusion.